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REPORT Detailed plan activities BALTIC LANDSCAPE NEMAN WP 4 – NEW APPROACHES TO LANDSCAPE PLANNING

REPORT
Detailed plan activities
BALTIC LANDSCAPE NEMAN
WP 4 – NEW APPROACHES TO LANDSCAPE PLANNING

To get an expert analysis of landscape planning area (BL Neman): evaluation of ecological and esthetic after-effects of modern and planned uses

Recommendations:

1. Esthetic evaluation of landscape area is based on a comparative analysis of the attractiveness of natural areas.
Forested landscape is one of the most important in BL Neman (forested lands comprises 40 of the area) and the most analyzed in terms of esthetics. This is the main reason why we choose the forested landscape to evaluate the esthetic features of BL Neman.
The techniques used to evaluate esthetics are based on the determination of esthetic characteristics of a forested site based on its species composition, age structure of forest stands and type of the forest.
The proposed techniques (see 2.2.3.1.2) made it possible to determine the average grade of esthetic evaluation of Novogrudok forestry enterprise (1.48).

2. The retrospective rating of agricultural and forestry uses in Grodno region with respect to landscape planning showed that Grodno region belongs to an area distinguished by exceptional diversity and complexity of natural (landscape) territories known as Belarusian Poozerye (Lakeland).
Agricultural-forestry uses prevail in agricultural use with about 50% of the area. The remaining half is equally shared by agricultural and forestry uses respectively. Grodno region occupies of the leading positions in the Republic of Belarus, it produces about 20% of the Republic’s agricultural output.
One-third of Grodno region is covered by forests. The area houses 269 nature reserves with 261.3 thousand ha (10.4% of the total area). The nature reserves include 2 national parks (parts of them), 14 republican nature reserves, 37 local nature reserves, 216 natural monuments.
Landscapes with minimum anthropogenic impact are rare being typical of the forest-swampy flat hollows of glacial-lake landscapes with 2.1% of the total area.
These specific features of landscape formation of Belarusian Poozerye should be taken into consideration for the rational development of the areas at both local and national levels to promote their sustainability.
The esthetic evaluation and retrospective analysis of agricultural and forestry uses of BL Neman allowed us to make some conclusions about considerable recreational potential for tourism development.
3. To maximally adopt the principles of Model Forest as a social-ecological-economic system the forest resources are considered as determining factors for regional landscape planning in BL Neman. Ecological and economic assessment of the BL Neman forest resources has been carried out for forested areas of Novogrudok forestry enterprise. Groups I and II of forested areas were assessed in terms of protection and age structure: by effective national stumpage prices of forest wood (minimum assessment rate), by stock trading prices of standing wood (basic assessment rate), by special prices showing the value of forest resources as being able to compensate the forest management expenditure with due regard to different conditions and wood processing efficiency (strategic assessment).
General economic assessment of forest resources (all standing wood resources) by the effective stumpage prices makes up 43506.8 thousand USD (specific assessment is 492 USD/ha, 2.3 USD/m3); by stock trading prices – 169892.6 thousand USD (specific assessment is 1923 USD/ha, 9.1 USD/m3). However these prices cannot reflect the full value of forest resources. Total ecological and economic assessment by special prices is 350 million USD (specific assessment is 3963 USD/ha, 18.8 USD/m3).
4. Regional nature management should be considered based on the local population feedback, i.e. as a public dialogue about future landscape.
To solve this problem we carried out the following activities:
- reports and presentations on the project results at the international scientific-technical conference “Engineering and Technology of Environmental Protection” (October 9-11, 2013, Minsk, BSTU), session “Ecological and economic evaluation of environmental protection”. Chairman – A.V. Neverov, professor, D.Sc. (Economics), secretary – T.P. Vodopyanova, assistant professor, PhD (Economics);
- public opinion research, questionnaire survey on environmental issues, nature management, landscape planning among different categories of the BL Neman local population;
- round-table talks “Novogrudok Landscapes and the Baltic Sea: nature conservation of larger and smaller areas” with stakeholders and local people. The discussions aimed at discovering and taking into account environmentally vital and vulnerable landscape elements to further landscape planning. Reports and presentations on regional landscape planning were given during the talks as well as consultations of interested local people. On October 18, 2013, Professor A.V. Neverov held a round-table talk with more than 50 BL Neman stakeholders.
- media coverage of the held events of social feedback about the ecological and economic evaluation of BL Neman regional nature management. Increased awareness of local population and further dialogue was promoted by an article about the above-mentioned round table discussions published in the local newspaper Novae Zhytstse (New Life)”, TV and radio broadcasting (radio programs “Novogrudok News”, TV programs “NovoTV”), information about the round table at the international scientific-technical conference “Engineering and Technology of Environmental Protection” (October 9-11, 2013, Minsk, BSTU), session “Ecological and economic evaluation of environmental protection”.
5. Ecological evaluation of the current (and planned) uses of the Novogrudok area is an absolute requirement to lay down field-specific goal concepts of natural resources uses and integrated goal concepts of the area uses.
Specific methodological approaches have been proposed to calculate main criteria which can be used to assess environmental capacity of the area and anthropogenic load on different land categories.
To involve organizations dealing with nature management planning and other interested parties to the implementation of the project
Recommendations:
1. Local population of Novogrudok district (both young and adult people) show great concern for the town environment and creating of attractive landscapes. 60% of the population are aware of the Baltic Landscapes conservation issue.
Among young people senior school pupils not only point out environmental problems but are able to suggest some working and efficient environmental solutions.
So, young people suggest the following activities of environmental development: greening and landscaping, cleaning, reducing waste volumes by making less garbage, reduced traffic, improved waste control, construction of waste management facilities, closing of factories and enterprises producing much waste and sewage or increased penalties for such factories.
Adult people point out rich forest and water resources of the area but tend to underestimate their recreational potential which can become a good future development thrust. However the opinion pattern could be affected by the fact that mass media provide less than 50% of information about the state of the environment though current information is given occasionally (60% of respondents noted this).
2. The quality of potable water is another concern for the local people. It was mentioned by 24.8% of respondents.
3. Local authorities are reported to work in a nonsystemic way, however it is the local authorities that recently have initiated some environmental activities.
4. Penalty charges (or administrative methods) prove to be the most efficient tools to motivate nature-conservation behavior.
5. Novogrudok district possesses considerable capacities for further development, including its tourism potential, which can be promoted by environmental education of population.
6. Communication protocol covers the main activities for different groups of stakeholders:
- forestry staff and local authorities – cooperation – strong partnership, participation in forums;
- young people (students and school pupils) – supervision – increasing their awareness, involvement in environmental projects, flash-mobs, monitoring of young people;
- education workers – information about main project results – feedback, regular meetings.
The communication protocol aims at increased efficiency of environmental activities and improved quality of life in the district.
Objectives of the communication protocol:
1. To improve the efficiency of the information about landscape planning in Novogrudok district.
2. To create reliable database on aims, objectives, feasibility study of environmental-oriented projects implemented in Novogrudok district. The main task here is to create a tourist product, i.e. use of recreational resources based on landscape planning.
3. To involve young people in recreational projects implementation.
4. To elaborate a general communication strategy for local population and specialists involved in landscape planning.

To propose principles of the landscape infrastructure development
Recommendations:

Based on landscape map and geosystem analysis of soil cover structure and forest-typological complexes it was possible to reveal main trends for landscape planning in the study area. The prospective infrastructure development took into account the location of economic zones in BL Neman area.

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To build a coordination network for all uses of natural resources and balancing their impacts according to the criteria of sustainable development. To develop and coordinate an integrated approach to landscape planning

Recommendations:
Criteria of sustainable development of the natural environment of the study area have been determined. The analysis of preferred uses of each geosystem (type of area) has been carried out within both individual landscape taxonomic units and BL Neman as a whole according to the criteria of sustainable development of natural environment. A map of coordinating all uses of natural resources has been made. The map covers the following uses of natural resources (in order of reducing anthropogenic load):
1. ‘settlement’
2. ‘arable’
3. ‘meadow intensive’
4. ‘limited arable, meadow low-intensive’
5. ‘limited meadow, forestry’
6. ‘limited meadow, nature-conservative’
7. ‘forestry’
8. ‘forestry, nature-conservative’
9. ‘forestry, recreational’
10. ‘recreational, nature-conservative’
11. ‘nature-conservative’

The study was based on a systemic approach and geoinformation modelling. The following methods were applied: functional-genetic, comparative-geographic, cartographic, cartometric, expert evaluation, multi-factor analysis, statistic, nested dissection method, specialized tools of geoinformation technologies.
Morphological and functional-genetic approaches were combined by the review and analysis of soil and vegetation cover as soil combinations (geosystems). The analysis of regularly repeated soil structures (according to criteria shown in Table 3.2.1.1) made it possible to solve the problem of combining typological, regional and functional (systematic) landscape approaches.

Integrated typological approaches towards landscape planning have been developed based on a geosystem analysis of natural environment as related to economically feasible and environmentally friendly use of natural resources, i.e. sustainable nature management.
The analysis of the landscape map showing natural resources capacity, the map of the current land uses and the coordinating map of nature management calls for the following activities to optimize land use:
- establishing of green spaces within large settlement areas (towns of Novogrudok, Mir, Korelichi, ‘agricultural settlements’);
- splitting and separation of continued areas of intensive lands within arable zones by converting some land uses to those of natural pattern (e.g. forest belts, afforestation, bog formation);
- cultivation of less intensive crops and applying low-impact farming techniques within the area mapped as ‘limited arable, meadow low-intensive’;
- continuous meadow formation and afforestation in the zones mapped as ‘limited meadow, nature-conservative’;
- partial naturalizing of lands (bog formation, natural afforestation) in the zones mapped as ‘forestry, nature-conservative’;
- erosion preventive activities in the areas mapped as ‘arable’;
- low-intensity agricultural uses of lands close to water and water-marshy bodies, conversion of arable lands in riparian zones;
- regulation of recreational load in the areas mapped as ‘recreational’ and ‘nature-conservative’;
- reconsideration of land use in the areas mapped as ‘nature-conservative’;
- regular hay-making and cattle grazing in the areas overgrowing with trees and bushes but mapped as ‘meadow intensive’;
- increasing ‘environment-stabilizing’ lands in the areas mapped as ‘forestry, nature-conservative’;
- maintaining of traditional and alternative (other than agriculture and forestry) land uses within ‘settlement’ and ‘recreational’ zones;
- environmental-educational landscape use in ‘recreational’ and ‘nature-conservative’ areas.
Due to high accuracy and integrated amount of details it is advisable to use the created planning and cartographic data to build a coordinating network for all uses of natural resources of Baltic Landscape Neman and to define criteria for the sustainable development of the study area. The obtained data make it possible to propose the preferred uses for each geosystem (type of area) within individual landscape taxonomic units and the study area as a whole according to the criteria of sustainable development of natural environment and to develop integrated approaches towards landscape planning.

To elaborate techniques for joint recording of biophysical and social-economic landscape characteristics during planning

Recommendations:

1. The assessment methodology of interrelation between biophysical and social-economic landscape characteristics during planning is based on the following principles:
- selection of key economic and/or environmental resource which systemic nature relation is dependent on;
- structuring of integrated resource and determination of composition and structure of the environmental resource;
- reproduction of natural (environmental) assets as a carrier of ecosystem products and ecosystem services based on keeping the ecological balance;
- differentiation of ecological balance (functional and territorial);
- ecological and economic zoning and nature management type assignment;
- assessment of increment (loss) of natural (environmental) assets, ecosystem products and ecosystem services of a regional natural complex.
2. Methodological approach (ecosystem approach) is based on the theory of reproduction financial return and cost estimation of ecosystem products and ecosystem services which makes it possible to express the relation between biophysical and social-economic characteristics of natural complexes.
3. The following stages have been identified when elaborating the methodology:
1) search (identification) of biophysical (environmental) an social-economic characteristics of areas (landscapes);
2) formulation of cost (mathematical) interrelation between environmental and economic landscape characteristics;
3) defining methodology application for landscape planning (natural assets increment).
4. Conceptual issues of the methodology for assessing the interrelation between biophysical and social-economic characteristics during landscape planning have been elaborated for those landscape types which make a priority for BL Neman development: forestry landscapes, agricultural landscapes, nature conservation landscapes, hydrologic landscapes.
Forest productivity is the main biophysical characteristic of forestry landscapes. Forest productivity is determined as the annual resource productivity of the main natural resource per 1 ha (calculated by the total average increment of forest stands according to national forest inventory data). The integrated social-economic characteristic of a forestry landscape describing the level of the economic development is a rental income from natural resources which is the current (annual) cost estimation for forest ecosystems.
Productivity of meadow ecosystem is the main biophysical characteristic of an agricultural landscape. The productivity of meadow ecosystems is determined by average yield capacity of meadows depending on their type. The integrated social-economic characteristic of an agricultural landscape is a land rental income from natural resource.
Nature-conservation landscapes can be described by a number of main biophysical characteristics such as the area of nature conserved site (water body) of the ecosystem of l-type; the total number of protected wild animals of an i-species inhabiting the study ecosystem; the total number of protected flora of an i-species growing within the study ecosystem. Main social-economic characteristics of a nature-conservation landscape can be as follows: economic evaluation of primary products (ecosystem) which is done by value terms of the ecosystem operational value (calculated by a capitalized value of differential rent); costs of reproduction of certain wild animal species; costs of reproduction of certain flora species.
Water resources storage can serve as the main biophysical characteristic of a hydrological landscape. The water resource storage is calculated in cubic metres as annual average river runoff (water in lakes, ponds, etc.) per one area unit of a water body. The integrated social-economic characteristic of a hydrological landscape is a rental income from natural resource (potable freshwater).
The conceptual issues of the methodology contain the expressed interrelation between biophysical and social-economic characteristics as a cost estimation of ecosystem products and ecosystem services of landscapes (mathematical models of specific (per1 ha) and integrated estimation have been elaborated).
5. The methodology has been tested with actual data of Novogrudok district as of 01.01.2013. The methodology test results reveal that the integrated (current) cost estimation of ecosystem services of Novogrudok landscapes makes up more than 20 million EUR a year, including forestry landscapes – 7.7 million EUR, agricultural landscapes – 6.3.million EUR, hydrological landscapes – 6.5 EUR.
6. In elaborating and applying the assessment methodology of interrelation between biophysical and social-economic landscape characteristics during planning and assessing environmental and economic characteristics of a natural complex, the project stakeholders include the following parties: the Ministry of Forestry of the Republic of Belarus, RUE “Belgosles”, Novogrudok forestry enterprise, Novogrudok district council as a managing authority in the area.
7. The proposed methodology can be used for the following landscape planning activities: managerial decision-making related to ecology and chargeable nature resource management; forest management and forestry activities; wood harvesting; conservation of landscape and biodiversity; basic agricultural and water management activities; research into the reproduction of natural (environmental) assets; evaluation of increment (loss) of natural (environmental) assets, ecosystem products and services of a regional natural complex.

To develop monitoring indicators for agricultural landscape

Recommendations:

One of the main stages of agricultural landscapes optimization is to identify criteria and indicators.
Bioproductivity is considered to be an integrated indicator of anthropogenic load, bioproductivity maximum being a criterion of territorial optimum.
We suggest the following integrated criteria to assess sustainable development of agricultural landscapes:
1) high landscape stability;
2) maximum biological productivity;
3) rich biodiversity;
4) optimum energy consumption;
5) high ecological quality of products;
6) valuable recreational-esthetic functions;
7) high health indicators.
Each criterion requires a number of indicators to be selected. Such indicators describe the criterion taking into consideration soil, climatic, hydrological and social characteristics of the area.
Agricultural landscapes with organic soils should be assessed by two characteristics: generalized assessment of agricultural landscape use and generalized environmental assessment.
Agricultural landscape uses are to be assessed by the following generalized indicators:
- average productivity of a farm field over the last 10-20 years (a centner of fodder unit per one farm field point);
- farmlands productivity tendency over the last 10-20 years (% per year);
- productivity variability (% per year) over the last 10-20 years;
- profit from crop production over the last 5 years (conventional units per one hectar point).
Ecological evaluation of agricultural landscapes with organic (peat-bog) soils should be done by the following indicators:
- standard of health of the local population, %;
- ecological state of landscape soil cover, cultivated crops in the farm field, %;
- ecological state of landscape vegetation cover (complex evaluation index of grass canopy);
- ecological state of landscape fauna.
Each indicator is to be assessed based on a 10-point scale.
Each of the above-mentioned approaches to agricultural landscape assessment takes into consideration the yield-producing power of farm fields, ecological indicators and human health. The existing conditions for living of local people are not assessed.

Technological indicators of soils
Technological indicators affect the growth of flora and determine the costs of soil cultivation. To alter the indicators the following controllable factors should be altered: moisture, organic content, structure-forming, exchangeable cation composition. It is required to regulate cultivation periods and use research-backed soil cultivation techniques, to apply organic fertilizers, to introduce crop rotation, to do soil liming and to regulate water regime. The following technological indicators are known:
- stoniness, %;
- plow layer depth, cm;
- soil density, g/cm3;
- soil hardness, g/cm2;
- soil structure;
- soil reaction (soil acidity);
- nutrient content;
- weed infestation of soil and weed species composition;
- presence of pests.

Indicators of human impact on ecosystems
Human activity causes alternation of ecological state of soils in an agricultural landscape which is assessed be the following indicators:
- erosional features or soil wash-out (water erosion), %;
- peat mineralization (depletion of peat deposits), mm/g;
- peat removal by wind (wind erosion), t/g;
- soil contamination by heavy metals, radionuclides and garbohydrates.

To develop monitoring indicators for infrastructure development in Novogrudok district
Recommendations:

This task aimed at elaborating a set of monitoring indicators for infrastructure development in Novogrudok district. The district infrastructure was divided into two categories: production and social infrastructure. The analysis of production infrastructure was carried out for the following fields: transport infrastructure, engineering infrastructure and economy infrastructure; social infrastructure was analyzed by education sport and tourism, health care, culture. Below are the elaborated indicators for each field:
1. Economy infrastructure: the number of industrial enterprises; the number of agricultural production cooperatives; the number of people employed by the economy infrastructure; average monthly salary; product output (goods and services) in actual cost prices, billion BLR; growth of industrial output as compared to the previous reporting period, billion BLR.
2. Engineering infrastructure: gas pipe length (km) and installation of gas services in residential houses (%); length of heat supply network, water supply network, power cable lines (km); the number of high-voltage distribution centres and substations of various capacities, posts of outdoor lighting; telephone density (the number of telephones per 100 residents); cellular telephone density (the number of SIM-cards per 100 residents); cellular communication in population centres (%); Internet communication in population centres (%).
3. Transport infrastructure: length of motorways with hard surfacing in terms of the area (km/1 000 km2); length of motorways with hard surfacing in terms of population number (km/10 000 people); the number of motorway service facilities, (per 100 km of motorways).
4. Education: the number of educational establishments, including kindergartens, general secondary schools, specialized secondary educational establishments, supplementary educational establishments for children and young people, social-pedagogical schools, sanatory educational establishments, sport schools.
5. Sport and tourism: the number of sport facilities and establishments, including specialized children and youth schools of Olympic reserve, stadiums, sport gyms; the number of tourism facilities, including hotels, museums, excursion tours of the district.
6. Health care: the number of hospital beds per 10 000 of people; the number of doctors; medical service density per 10 000 of people; the number of nursing and midwifery staff; nursing and midwifery service density per 10 000 of people.
7. Culture: the number of clubs, culture centres, handicraft centres, etc.

To summarize best practices of landscape planning from both Belarus and BL project partners
Recommendations:

1. At present nature management and environmental protection planning is carried out in accordance with the official laws and decrees of the President of the Republic of Belarus. Specific issues of nature management and environmental protection are regulated by the Republican Code about Land, Water and Tax Codes of the Republic of Belarus, the Code of the Republic of Belarus about Mineral Resources, laws and regulations of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection and other branch ministries and departments of the republic of Belarus.
2. Currently landscape planning is not carried out to the full extent in the Republic of Belarus. At the same time, the national legislative and regulatory and legal framework together with a clearly organized system of the public authority and management can serve as an institutional foundation for organizing, formation and development of landscape planning. The landscape planning system should be formed primarily at the local level of management.
3. It has been determined that landscape development and planning are to a certain extent applied in design, research and economic organizations of the country. Some landscape planning elements were applied when developing a scheme for a rational location of nature reserves of the republic until 1990 stretching to January 1, 2015. The works included the design of the recreational zones “Naroch”, “Braslav Lakes”, etc., the elaboration of recommendations for architectural-landscape design of agricultural enterprises, the feasibility analysis of engineering activities to protect the Pripyat river floodplain from overflow, the elaboration of recommendations for afforestation of the smaller river banks.
4. The main documents regulating land-use planning in the Republic of Belarus are land-use plans and land regulation projects. These documents should serve as tools for managerial decision-making in land use and protection. Wide application of spatial data for elaborating the above land-use planning documents led to modern geoinformational systems and technologies being used for their processing and analysis.
5. Forest inventory, being one of the tools of forestry planning and performing the tasks of forest and landscape inventory, is about long-term forecasting of forest resources with due regard to technical and economic requirements. This also determines main trends of forestry activities over the long term and assesses their performance. Forestry inventory in the Republic of Belarus is based on the data of GPS survey, land information system, information system of national forest fund inventory, land surveying, soil surveying and other surveys of the forest fund. The main forest inventory document is a forest inventory plan which gives an integrated evaluation of forestry, forest fund state and forest fund use over the period after the previous forest inventory was done. This document also contains the fundamental principles of forestry activities and their scope, allowable final cut and other forest management activities for the coming period.
6. “A tourism natural landscape” is used as a geographical unit of landscape planning in tourism. This concept is very similar to that of “a tourism landscape”. Nature reserves are considered as an integral specialized tourist facility. A typology of tourism natural landscapes has been proposed according to which specific and less frequently universal landscapes are the most common ones.
7. It has been determined that adoption of international experience of land use planning is not always possible or rational. Frequently this experience proves to be incompatible in different countries; it highly depends on understanding the principles which determine specific features of a planning system. The final objective of studying international planning systems is a better understanding of the own system, its advantages and disadvantages as well as its limitations.
8. Landscape planning is an integral part of a land planning system in a number of European countries (Germany, France, etc.). The analysis of different national landscape planning models makes it possible to identify their most vital characteristics. Thus, complex open-type planning systems are getting more and more widely used in some EU countries (Germany, the Netherlands); modern planning systems are highly responsive to the increasing impacts of market factors. Some countries (Spain, Belgium) undergo the processes of planning decentralization. In the near future economic entities and businesses of the EU countries are likely to undertake responsibility for territorial and landscape planning.
9. The adaptability of the principles of European conventions on sustainable development in Baltic Landscape Neman and the Republic of Belarus has been assessed, including the European Landscape Convention (ETS, No. 176, Florence, 20.10.2000), the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern, 19.09.1979), the Convention for the Protection of the Architectural Heritage of Europe (Granada, 3.10.1985), the European Convention on the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage (Revised) (Valetta, 16.01.1992), the European Framework Convention on Cross-border Cooperation between Territorial Communities and Authorities (Madrid, 21.05.1980) and its additional protocols, the European Charter of Local Self-Government (Strasbourg, 15.10.1985), the Convention on Biological Diversity (Rio-de-Janeiro, 5.06.1992), the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (Paris, 16.11.1972) and the Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (Aarhus, 25.06.1998).
10. When planning forested landscapes, there is a certain progress in adoption of European conventions to landscape planning, biodiversity conservation, etc. at the national level in the Republic of Belarus. Some work is being done to apply the principles of these conventions. However, sustainable development is far from its full implementation, there are no effective tools for landscape management. As a rule horizontal relations and partnership are not used to reevaluate policy, legislation and planning. The EU strategy of sustainable development, European conventions are not fully implemented at the local level, sometimes there are no practical tools for their implementation.
11. Within the project “Baltic Landscape in change – innovative approaches towards forested landscapes” successful practices have been adopted regarding landscape planning in the Republic of Belarus. A detailed description of landscape planning in BL Neman has been made (structure, pollution, protection, development prospects of landscape components). The task to be solved also called for making and analyzing the list of organizations, experts and stakeholders involved in landscape planning. Discussion meetings and field trips to BL Neman helped to solve many project problems.
12. The technique for joint recording of biophysical and social-economic landscape characteristics during planning has been elaborated. During landscape planning in BL Neman it is proposed to use a methodological approach based on integrated cost estimation of ecosystem services expressing the mathematical relation between biophysical and social-economic characteristics of ecosystems.
13. The following phasing for the development and application of the elaborated technique is proposed: searching for (identifying) integrated biophysical and social-economic characteristics of the area (landscape); expression of the interrelation between characteristics with regard to indicated factors; identifying the trends for applying the technique during planning.
14. The following landscape types have been prioritized for BL Neman planning: forestry landscapes; agricultural landscapes; nature-conservation landscapes; hydrological landscapes.
15. The study made it possible to elaborate monitoring indicators for flora, hydrological conditions, land balance, fauna, agricultural landscape, infrastructure development, population, tourism.
16. Taking into consideration the principles of European Landscape Convention and promoting sustainable development of the Republic of Belarus, it is recommended:
- to elaborate proposals for landscape planning at regional level;
- to describe the landscape planning system based on the district development planning, functional zones establishing, allocating of industrial and social facilities, zones of special use. The framework documents regulating these activities can be area development plans as well as plans of use and protection of forest fund, water bodies, development and allocation of nature reserves and other areas;
- to elaborate and legally introduce proposal for a regulatory act imparting the landscape planning in the Republic of Belarus with a systematic, large-scale and controllable format;
- to take into consideration international experience of landscape planning.
17. It has been proposed to create a Model Forest in Belarus and to join the International Model Forest Network (IMFN) that could become a tool for implementation of the European conventions.
18. A BL Network in the Baltic Sea Region with an innovative potential, joint partnership and action plan will contribute to the solution of the problem of sustainable forested landscapes.